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National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network - CDC

Birth Defects Definitions

The Tracking Network has data for the following birth defects.

Anencephaly

Anencephaly is a serious birth defect in which a baby is born without parts of the brain and skull. It is a type of neural tube defect. Read more about anencephaly.

Spina Bifida (without Anencephaly)

Spina bifida is a condition that affects the spine and is usually apparent at birth. It is a type of neural tube defect. Read more about Spina bifida.

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital heart defect that affects normal blood flow through the heart. As the baby develops during pregnancy, the left side of the heart does not form correctly. Read more about Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome.

Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that affects normal blood flow through the heart. Read more about Tetralogy of Fallot.

Transposition of the Great Arteries (Vessels)

Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a congenital heart defect in which the two main arteries going out of the heart—the pulmonary artery and the aorta—are switched in position, or "transposed". Read more about TGA.

Cleft Lip

A cleft lip happens if the tissue that makes up the lip does not join completely before birth. This results in an opening in the upper lip. Children with a cleft lip also can have a cleft palate. Read more about cleft lip and cleft palate.

Cleft Palate

A cleft palate happens if the tissue that makes up the roof of the mouth does not join correctly. Read more about cleft lip and cleft palate.

Hypospadias

Hypospadias is a birth defect in boys in which the opening of the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body) is not located at the tip of the penis. Read more about Hypospadias.

Gastroschisis

Gastroschisis is a birth defect of the abdominal (belly) wall. The baby's intestines stick outside of the baby's body, through a hole beside the belly button. Read more about Gastroschisis.

Upper Limb Reduction Defects

Upper limb reduction defects occur when a part of or the entire arm (upper limb) of a fetus fails to form completely during pregnancy. Read more about Upper and Lower Limb Reduction Defects.

Lower Limb Reduction Defects

Lower limb reduction defects occur when a part of or the entire leg (lower limb) of a fetus fails to form completely during pregnancy. Read more about Upper and Lower Limb Reduction Defects.

Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)

Down syndrome is a condition in which a baby is born with an extra chromosome. This extra copy changes the body's and brain's normal development and causes developmental and physical problems for the baby. Read more about Down syndrome.

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